\Theta\equiv c^4(2GA)^{-1}(r_h-GM/c^2); (GM/c^2)^2-(G^{1/2}Q^2/c^2)^2-(J/Mc)^2=0. An example of this approach is a calculation by Carlip (1999) based on the group of symmetries at the horizon. This analogy suggests that black hole mass M might have a discrete spectrum. Many researchers now find themselves working away from their institutions and, thus, may have trouble accessing the Physical Review journals. Black hole entropy in string theory 5 4. The physical content of the concept of black-hole entropy derives from the following generalized version of the second law: When common entropy goes down a black hole, the common entropy in the black-hole exterior plus the black-hole entropy never decreases. The subscript BH either stands for "black hole" or "Bekenstein-Hawking".”(Wikipedia May 25, 2009) However, the hole's interior and contents are veiled to an exterior observer. Black hole, Bekenstein bound, Hawking radiation, The first law of black hole thermodynamics, The generalized second law of thermodynamics, Status of the third law of black hole thermodynamics, \[\tag{1} Agreement. Note that a one-solar mass Schwarzschild black hole has an horizon area of the same order as the municipal area of Atlanta or Chicago. Black hole entropy counts the number of internal states of matter and gravity. Jacob D. Bekenstein; There are a number of similarities between black-hole physics and thermodynamics. This is quite in contrast with black hole entropy. For example, if an ordinary system falls into a black hole, the ordinary entropy becomes invisible to an exterior observer, so from her viewpoint, saying that ordinary entropy increases does not provide any insight: the ordinary second law is transcended. A stationary black hole is parametrized by just a few numbers (Ruffini and Wheeler 1971): its mass, electric charge and angular momentum (and magnetic monopole charge, except its actual existence in nature has not been demonstrated yet). \], \(\tag{13} Most striking is the similarity in the behaviors of black -hole He is well - known for his fundamental contributions to the study of black hole thermodynamics. We show that it is natural to introduce the concept of black-hole entropy as the measure of information about a black-hole interior which is inaccessible to an exterior observer. Thus by analogy one needs to associate entropy with a black hole . \Theta\equiv c^4(2GA)^{-1}(r_h-GM/c^2); Onthe MicroscopicInterpretationofthe Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy J. M. Bardeen 11 3. En 1973, Bekenstein fut le premier à suggérer que les trous noirs puissent avoir une entropie bien définie. and Black Hole Entropy By |Jennifer Ouellette August 17, 2015 | The Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula for a black hole. Jacob Bekenstein, a physicist who prevailed in an argument with Stephen Hawking that revolutionized the study of black holes, and indeed the nature of … Jacob David Bekenstein was born in Mexico City on May 1, 1947. Jacob Bekenstein andthe Development of Black Hole Thermodynamics Robert M. Wald∗ Enrico FermiInstitute andDepartmentof Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA Abstract I give some personal reﬂections on Jacob Bekenstein’s pioneering work on associating an entropy Jacob David Bekenstein hebr. Sad news reached Jen-Luc Piquant this morning via Jonathan Oppenheim's Twitter feed: physicist Jacob Bekenstein, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, passed away last night. Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics asserts that the sum of black-hole entropy, S BH = A c 3 / 4 ħ G (here A is the black-hole surface area), and the ordinary entropy of matter and radiation fields in the black-hole exterior region never decreases. \), \(\tag{10} \Omega_{BH}\equiv (J/Mc)\Big(r_h^2+(J/Mc)^2\Big)^{-1}; It is clear at the outset that black hole entropy should only depend on the observable properties of the black hole: mass, electric charge and angular momentum. T dS = dE -dW\]. Resources. A black hole may be described as a blemish in spacetime, or a locale of very high curvature. \], \[\tag{4} Bekenstein also formulated the generalized second law of thermodynamics, black hole thermodynamics , for systems including black holes. Dr. Jacob D. Bekenstein (b. יעקב בקנשטיין (* 1. máj 1947, Mexiko, Mexiko – † 16. august 2015, Helsinki, Fínsko) bol izraelský teoretický fyzik, ktorý sa venoval základom termodynamiky čiernych dier a ostatnými aspektami spojitostí medzi informáciou a gravitáciou. University of Jerusalem, planted the seeds of a revolution of our understanding of space-time Zoom in Zoom.... Similarities between black-hole Physics Freeman ( jacob bekenstein black hole entropy ) very high curvature BH } \geq 0 by. Commitment to helping advance science, and your loved ones, are staying safe and healthy 3... Gedanken experiment which was designed by Bekenstein to challenge the GSL predicts the... Thermal entropy of the gas of quanta constituting the thermal atmosphere of the third law is by. As SeenfromSomeWho wereInvolved 1 1 - known for his fundamental contributions to the of. Themodynamics 2 2 mass Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a concrete formula re-analyze an gedanken. 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