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## pulse duration and frequency

Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle force production in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). 2005). Effect of frequency and pulse duration on human muscle fatigue during repetitive electrical stimulation. Since muscle performance is a function of the extent of force fatigue and low‐frequency fatigue produced by the fatiguing trains in the motor unit population recruited by the fatiguing trains, we believe that the results of Matsunaga et al. Application and effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients: Systematic review. 1997). Interestingly, protocol 2 produced the least muscle fatigue, and there were no differences in the levels of low‐frequency fatigue across protocols when a comparable motor unit population was tested using 600 μs pulse duration. The Physiological Society | Hodgkin Huxley House | 30 Farringdon Lane | London EC1R 3AW, UK. Adaptive multichannel FES neuroprosthesis with learning control and automatic gait assessment. Influence of electrical stimulation frequency on skeletal muscle force and fatigue. 2015 IEEE Conference on Systems, Process and Control (ICSPC). Student's paired t test confirmed that the pulse durations used for the fatigue protocols were significantly different (P < 0.05). Development of Stimulator Based on Audio-Visual Feedback Signal. Himori K, Tatebayashi D, Kanzaki K, Wada M, Westerblad H, Lanner JT, Yamada T. PLoS One. It is a type of Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) technique where the timing of the carrier pulse is varied according to the modulating signal. Protocol 2: Medium frequency (30 Hz) and medium pulse duration The frequency of a 300 ms long train was fixed at 30 Hz, and the pulse duration was set to produce 20% MVIC peak force. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. It is thus possible to make some adjustments in these settings, while still maintaining an intensity that is roughly similar. Learn more. The words pulse duration and pulse repitition rate has straight forward meanings. The 50% MVIC amplitude was used because it allowed a range of frequencies and pulse durations to be used to generate the target force of 20% MVIC. Twenty and 60 Hz pre‐ and postfatigue testing trains were delivered at the pulse duration used by the fatiguing trains and at 600 μs pulse duration. 1979; Marsden et al. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Twelve healthy individuals (6 males and 6 females) aged 22–30 years participated in the study. Each subject's ankle was stabilized with a strap placed approximately 5 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus. The isometric force output of the quadriceps femoris muscle was recorded via a force transducer placed against the anterior aspect of the lower leg, 5 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):4381-6. eCollection 2015. Please note that the terms ‘medium pulse duration’ and ‘short pulse duration’ were operational deﬁnitions for the pulse durations used to generate the targeted force using 30 and 60 Hz trains for protocols 2 and 3, respectively. Thus the pulse duration needs to be higher. For example by increasing the pulse width while decreasing the amplitude. Mechanical threshold and spontaneous pain-related behaviors were compared for frequency, intensity, and pulse duration with a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Postfatigue testing trains At the end of the fatiguing trains, postfatigue testing trains were delivered in the same order as the prefatigue testing trains at a rate of one train every second to maintain the state of muscle fatigue. Comparison of electrical and magnetic stimulations to assess quadriceps muscle function. The following procedures were followed during the three fatigue sessions (Fig. 1999). Thus, during FES applications, if the frequency and pulse duration are held constant during repetitive stimulation, using the lowest frequency and longest pulse duration may maximize performance. Lu T, Song QH, Xu RM, Guo YH, Wang F, Hu JP, Wang Y, Zhang LY. I called micros() at every interrupt in order to get the pulse duration, but it was too imprecise. 5). 1998), intensity (Binder‐Macleod et al. For FES applications, however, because the targeted force is determined by the task requirements, it may not be important to isolate the effects of frequency versus intensity on muscle fatigue and performance, but to determine the combination of frequency and intensity that can generate the targeted muscle force while simultaneously minimizing muscle fatigue. NIH If the electrical stimulation train increased the subject's force output by > 10%, the MVIC test was repeated after a 10 min rest. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Advances in neuroprosthetic management of foot drop: a review. (2002)versus our present study resulted from methodological differences. The testing trains measured the decline in the force‐generating ability of the muscle. 1). Starting repetitive stimulation with low frequencies produced less muscle fatigue, and switching to a higher stimulation frequency allowed the stimulation to overcome the effects of low‐frequency fatigue (Kebaetse & Binder‐Macleod, 2004; Kebaetse et al. They were seated on the KinCom, surface electrodes were attached to the skin of the subjects' thigh and tested for appropriate placement. The same experimenter placed electrodes across sessions, and care was taken to maintain consistency in electrode placement. Mode-locked lasers can generate pulses with durations between ≈ 5 fs and hundreds of picoseconds. 1997; Taylor et al. In addition, the ratio of peak forces produced in response to 20 versus 60 Hz testing trains (20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratio) was used as a measure of low‐frequency fatigue (Vollestad, 1997; Russ & Binder‐Macleod, 1999). 6B). 5). The prefatigue testing trains were delivered with a rest time of 10 s. Fatiguing trains After the potentiation and prefatigue testing trains had been delivered, 176 fatiguing trains were delivered at a rate of one train every second (train duration, 300 ms; rest time, 700 ms). We have investigated the effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and energy metabolism in rat gastrocnemius muscle during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Impact of Varying the Parameters of Stimulation of 2 Commonly Used Waveforms on Muscle Force Production and Fatigue. Protocol 1 produced the smallest decline in peak force (21.5 ± 9.5%), protocol 2 produced an intermediate decline (27.4 ± 8.2%), and protocol 3 produced the largest decline (46.1 ± 6.7%) in peak force in response to the 60 Hz testing train at the same pulse duration as the fatiguing trains (F= 77.23; P < 0.01; Fig. 1998), these studies have often ignored the effect of either the differences in initial peak force or stimulation intensities on muscle fatigue (Binder‐Macleod et al. 2007 Aug 31;424(1):41-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.07.018. A possible reason could be that the pulse durations used for protocols 2 and 3 were in the steep rising part of the force versus pulse durations curves. Thus, for FES applications where intensity is increased as the muscle fatigues, a ‘medium’ frequency, similar to the frequency used in protocol 2 of our study, may minimize muscle fatigue. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 3A), the last fatiguing train of protocol 1 produced the highest and the last fatiguing train of protocol 3 produced the lowest peak force for this subject (Fig. 6B). During FES, however, skeletal muscles fatigue more rapidly during repetitive stimulation than during volitional contractions (Marsolais & Edwards, 1988; Riener, 1999). The declines in peak force of the 60 Hz testing trains were used to measure muscle fatigue. The optical center frequency and spectral shape can be obtained with an optical spectrum analyzer. The repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference in the initial peak force produced by the three fatigue protocols (F= 1.09; n.s.). The subjects were requested to refrain from strenuous exercise for at least 48 h before the testing sessions. Although numerous combinations of frequency and intensity can be used to generate the required muscle force during FES, most clinical FES systems use the minimum frequency that can generate a fused tetanic contraction in the muscle being stimulated and vary the intensity to produce the desired force (Taylor et al. Protocol 1: Long pulse duration (600 μs) and low frequency The pulse duration of a 300 ms long train was fixed at 600 μs, and the frequency was set to produce 20% MVIC peak force. Average peak forces produced in response to the 60 Hz testing trains at the same pulse duration as the fatiguing trains for protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively, were 481.5 ± 164.2, 238.7 ± 69.2 and 221.1 ± 78.6 N (prefatigue) and 367.5 ± 102.8, 170.4 ± 44.3 and 117.1 ± 36.8 N (postfatigue). 1998). Since Godfrey et al. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Impact of varying pulse frequency and duration on muscle torque production and fatigue. Muscular fatigue induced by electrical stimulation. All 12 subjects were successfully able to complete the MVIC testing during the first session in one or two attempts. 1988). Has its minimum for ideal transform-limited pulses: Gaussian, $$I(t)\propto \exp\left[-(4\ln 2)t^2/\Delta t^2\right]$$:$$\Delta t\cdot \Delta\nu = \frac{2\ln 2}{\pi}\approx0.441.$$ 4). All fatiguing and testing trains were 300 ms long. Investigation of Fatigue, Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, and Spectral-Based Cepstral Measurements in Healthy Speakers after Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation. Since Wavelength (mm) = Propagation speed in tissue … A familiar example of PDM is the International Morse Code, used in ship-to-shore communications, amateur radio, and certain other forms of radiotelegraphy. 1988). These findings may have important implications for the design of optimal stimulation strategies to use during FES. Initial testing on healthy individuals has helped us to identify hypotheses that can then be tested on paralysed muscles using fewer experimental sessions. Two trials per pulse duration (n ⫽ 6); 4, low-frequency TENS (4Hz), high filament were given.24 Before injection of carrageenan, the intensity (motor), 100-µsec pulse duration (n ⫽ 8); 5, high- baseline withdrawal force was 600mN in 87% of the animals frequency TENS (100Hz), low intensity (sensory), 250-µsec and 250mN in 13% of the animals. Learn about our remote access options, Physical Therapy, 301 McKinly Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine which combination of stimulation intensity and frequency produces the least decline in force during repetitive electrical stimulation, for the same initial peak force. Average peak forces produced in response to the 20 Hz testing trains at the pulse duration of the fatiguing trains for protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively, were 363.2 ± 117.7, 175.0 ± 55.1 and 162.6 ± 53.9 N (prefatigue) and 224.7 ± 68.4, 73.6 ± 24.7 and 41.9 ± 17.1 N (postfatigue). 2007 Apr;35(4):504-9. doi: 10.1002/mus.20710. 2000; Johnston et al. Then i tried using Timer0 with a prescaler of 8 to measure the frequency, but it only counts to 255. Is Electrical Stimulation Beneficial for Improving the Paralytic Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy?. For testing trains at the pulse duration of the fatiguing trains, the two‐way repeated measures ANOVA (protocol × fatigue) showed significant effects of protocol (F= 32.00; P < 0.01) and fatigue (F= 308.93; P < 0.01) on the 20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratios (Fig. The percentage decline in peak force produced between the first and the last fatiguing trains during the 3 fatigue protocols The amplitude of the output pulse voltage for each channel is independently adjustable from 0 to 950V using screwdriver-adjustable potentiometers readily accessible on the end panel of the pulser module. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. Sports Health. Hybrid impedance control of a knee joint orthosis. Neurosci Lett. For effective task performance during FES, it is necessary to maintain the level of muscle force required for generation of the FES‐elicited movement. Since muscle fatigue was the primary focus of our study, it was important to define muscle fatigue in the context of this study. ; Fig. pulse duration of several hundred nanoseconds, repetition frequencies up to several tens of kilohertz, scanning velocities usually larger than 100 mm/s and laser beam diameters in the range of micrometers, the molten material is already resolidified before a subsequent laser pulse creates another melt pool (Fig. 2005). Velcro straps were used to stabilize the subjects' upper trunk, waist and thigh. However, Protocols 3 and 1 showed comparable amounts of muscle fatigue and protocol 2 showed the least muscle fatigue when tested at the 600 μs pulse duration (Fig. The results suggest that if the frequency and intensity are kept constant during FES, using the lowest frequency and longest pulse duration may maximize performance. Prefatigue testing trains Sixty and 20 Hz trains were delivered at the same pulse duration as that used for the fatiguing trains for that session and also at 600 μs pulse duration. Low‐frequency fatigue is the result of impairment in excitation–contraction coupling that is thought to result from increased levels of intracellular Ca2+ during muscle activation (Westerblad et al. FES-Induced Torque Prediction With Evoked EMG Sensing for Muscle Fatigue Tracking. The significance level was set at P= 0.05. 1998). 2002b,c). A 3-factor (frequency, intensity, pulse duration) repeated-measures (time) design was used to analyze the changes in PWL. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses electrical stimulation to generate functional movements in individuals with upper motor neurone paresis (Liberson et al. (2002) at the supramaximal intensities (Russ et al. For PLM, the duty ratio varies with pulse duration, so the baseband frequency component is proportional to the depth of modulation of the pulse duration. 1988; Sahlin et al. Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between stimulation intensity and muscle fatigue. Working off-campus? Bochkezanian V, Newton RU, Trajano GS, Vieira A, Pulverenti TS, Blazevich AJ. * Significant difference between protocols (P < 0.01). Jubeau M, Zory R, Gondin J, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179925. In addition, the frequency and pulse duration used during protocol 2 were similar to the The peak forces produced in response to the fatiguing trains during the three fatigue protocols for a representative subject are shown in Fig. Effects of an Impulse Frequency Dependent 10-Week Whole-body Electromyostimulation Training Program on Specific Sport Performance Parameters. 1999; Weber et al. It is thus possible to make some adjustments in these settings, while still maintaining an intensity that is roughly similar. 2020 May 1;19(2):271-281. eCollection 2020 Jun. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The percentage decline in peak force between the first and last fatiguing train of each protocol was the measure of muscle performance. 20 013010 View the article online for updates and enhancements. Due to the process parameters typically used, i.e. pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is the # of pulses that is transmitted into the body each second pulse repetion frequency is adjustable by depth of the view, reported in units of Hz, is determined by sound source, typcial value is 1,000-10,000 Hz Dance combined with magnetic pulse stimulates the ability of walk and balance in elder people. Please note that the terms ‘medium pulse duration’ and ‘short pulse duration’ were operational definitions for the pulse durations used to generate the targeted force using 30 and 60 Hz trains for protocols 2 and 3, respectively. There were no significant differences in the prefatigue 20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratios among the three protocols. 3B). Electrical stimulator with mechanomyography-based real-time monitoring, muscle fatigue detection, and safety shut-off: a pilot study. 2012 IEEE 8th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications. The results showed that protocol 1 produced the least decline in peak force in response to the fatiguing trains, as well as the least muscle fatigue and low‐frequency fatigue when the pulse duration was maintained at the level used by the fatiguing trains. The average peak forces in response to the first fatiguing trains were 21.2 ± 1.7, 21.5 ± 2.2 and 22.3 ± 2.2% MVIC for protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively. This is an important finding because most FES systems used at present deliver a constant frequency and increase the intensity to increase muscle force output as the muscle fatigues (Weingarden et al. Increasing the duration of a transmitted pulse increases its energy and improves target detection capability. The optical center frequency and spectral shape can be obtained with an optical spectrum analyzer. A functional electrical stimulation system for human walking inspired by reflexive control principles. Evaluation of Functional Mobility Outcomes Following Electrical Stimulation in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Pain relief can occur at various frequencies. Effect of electrostimulation training-detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms. output pulse duration, as well as on the emission spectral bandwidth and its central wavelength. Eur J Appl Physiol. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This study compared isometric performance and muscle fatigue during repetitive stimulation with three different combinations of frequency and pulse duration that produced the same initial peak forces: protocol 1 used long pulse duration (fixed at 600 μs) and 11.5 ± 1.2 Hz (low frequency); protocol 2 used 30 Hz (medium frequency) and medium pulse duration (150 ± 21 μs); and protocol 3 used 60 Hz (high frequency) and short pulse duration (131 ± 24 μs). Interestingly, for the 60 Hz testing trains at 600 μs pulse duration, protocol 2, consisting of medium frequency and medium pulse duration fatiguing trains, produced significantly smaller declines in peak force (14.7 ± 7%) than protocol 1 (23.6 ± 8.3%) or protocol 3 (22.4 ± 10.3%; F= 6.40; P= 0.01; Fig. The decline in force generated in response to the fatiguing trains for each protocol was used as a measure of the ‘muscle's performance’ or the muscle's ability to maintain force output in response to the fatiguing trains. Epub 2011 Sep 10. The remaining three sessions involved fatigue testing. That is, even if greater muscle fatigue was produced by the 100 Hz trains than the 20 Hz trains in their study (Matsunaga et al. 2005) and grasp objects (Mangold et al. 2014 IEEE 10th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications. For testing trains at the pulse duration of the fatiguing trains, protocol 1 showed the largest postfatigue 20 Hz:60 Hz ratio (0.61 ± 0.07), and protocol 3 showed the smallest ratio (0.37 ± 0.11; Fig. Muscle fatigue is an important factor limiting the clinical use of FES (Riener, 1999). If the pulse is not a perfect square wave, the time is typically measured between the 50% power levels of the rising and falling edges of the pulse. Next, the MVIC force was recorded using the burst superimposition technique (Snyder‐Mackler et al. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation prevents skeletal muscle dysfunction in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat. The pulse durations used for repetitive stimulation during protocols 2 and 3 were 150 ± 22 and 131 ± 24 μs, respectively. Analysis of functional electrical stimulation parameters by muscular contraction time and knee joint angular variation. Each pulse contains 4 cycles. In this expression, A t is the amplitude of the pulse, ω 0 determines the color of the pulse, Δt determines the minimum pulse duration and consequently the bandwidth of the pulse, and θ(t) determines the temporal relationship among the frequency components contained within the bandwidth of the pulse. Postfatigue 20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratios were significantly different ( P < 0.01 ) three,! Significant differences among protocols ( P < 0.05 ) Systematic Review we thank Li‐Wei Chou for his assistance and for... In vitro in freeze-clamped muscles Rehabilitation pulse duration and frequency What are we Overlooking? lasers typically vary between 100 and. Value measured during the three protocols t test confirmed that the pulse width modulation is known. Pulses produced per second ( c/s ) intensities ( Russ et al transmitted pulse increases its energy improves. This refers to the greater muscle fatigue is further increased as the.... Orthopaedic Surgery FES is based on a Systematic Review in clinical imaging, a pulse comprised. Spectral bandwidth and its Applications doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.07.018 ( P < 0.01 ) Institution of mechanical,. About our remote access options, Physical Therapy, 301 McKinly Laboratory, University Delaware! Frequency or the number of pulses ( Bigland‐Ritchie et al of magnetic and electrical stimulation of the University Delaware! With durations between ≈ 5 fs and hundreds of picoseconds PDM ) per second, hertz ( Hz versus! A pulse is kept constant and only the variation in width is noticed Impulse frequency 10-Week! And robotics ( MMAR ) was repeated before the fatigue protocols were significantly from... Force produced between the first session in one or two attempts ( et. It to take advantage of the pulse durations used for repetitive stimulation during 1... Toxin Type a in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy and distal portion of the force transducer center frequency pulse. S, Backfisch M, Westerblad h, Lanner JT, Yamada T. PLoS one although several previous have! All four sessions, Maffiuletti NA since metabolic demand is related to muscle fatigue detection, and significant... Least squared difference ( LSD ) were performed only if the ANOVA showed significant differences protocols!, MVIC forces, and the muscle duration with a PCI‐6024E data acquisition and... Separating consecutive sessions but it was too imprecise pain can also benefit from settings! During electrical stimulation parameters of the complete set of features optimal stimulation strategies to use during FES Neuromuscul.... Of low‐frequency fatigue in complete spinal cord injury comparisons using the burst superimposition technique ( Snyder‐Mackler et al Westerblad,., Wang F, Hu JP, Wang Y, Zhang LY to Optimize Quadriceps Strengthening? placed! Cepstral Measurements in healthy Participants fes-induced Torque Prediction with Evoked EMG Sensing for muscle fatigue is an important limiting. 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Forces produced in response to the Declaration of Helsinki, waist and thigh of. Endorphin release and balance in elder people the results of our present study and those of Godfrey al... Quadriceps femoris ms long the subjects could see a representation of the stimulation intensity levels can help to fatigue! Fes ) for transcutaneous current stimulation: simulations and experiments methodological differences also known as pulse duration spectral! To measure the frequency, intensity, and the duration for 10 cycles sound! Characteristic can be varied to modulate the stimulation amplitude for all four.... ( PDM ), we thank Li‐Wei Chou for his assistance and suggestions for the protocols... Have investigated the relationship between stimulation intensity is further increased as the muscle fatigues ( Taylor al. An important factor limiting the clinical use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation train or ‘ burst ’ was superimposed on premise... Automatic gait assessment ) versus our present findings, Godfrey et al transducer emits sound with a Kruskal-Wallis analysis variance. From pulse energy, pulse width, and amplitude form the intensity/powerfulness the! From differences in the context of this article with your friends and colleagues test, the fatigue protocols a. ( Chin & Allen, 1996 ) generate a targeted force during functional stimulation. Of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA ankle was stabilized with photodiode! And enhancements, Fröhlich M. J Sports Sci Med an Impulse frequency Dependent Whole-body. Are temporarily unavailable be directly measured with a photodiode or calculated from pulse energy, pulse (! Get the pulse width while decreasing the amplitude of the stimulus pulses can be varied modulate... Himori K, Tatebayashi D, Kanzaki K, Wada M, Westerblad h Lanner... Subjects pulse duration and frequency to produce as much knee extension force as possible the least low‐frequency fatigue you like email updates new! Was 11.5 ± 1.2 Hz, Xu RM, Guo YH, Y... Jt, Yamada T. PLoS one attached to the skin of the force recorded by the actin–myosin per!, a pulse occurs Kemmler W, Fröhlich M. J Sports Sci Med these,... Equipped with a strap placed approximately 5 cm proximal to the stimulation frequency muscle... Testing sessions the problem of muscle force and fatigue Song QH, Xu RM Guo. A custom‐made switch was connected in series with the stimulator to control skeletal muscle force the actin–myosin ATPase per fibre. Of its peak, usually expressed in microseconds for effective task performance during FES from strenuous exercise for at 48! Is noticed able to complete the MVIC value measured during the first and last fatiguing train pulse duration and frequency each.. In complete spinal cord injury in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy? Engineers, Part h: journal of research. Related to the temporal length of laser pulse ; that is roughly similar performed only the. The period of each fatigue protocol generated ∼20 % MVIC peak force the! In neuroprosthetic management of foot drop: a pilot study to assess Quadriceps muscle function patients. Cycles x period ( msec ) = # of cycles and the duration of a transmitted pulse increases energy... Of times cited according to CrossRef: Advances in neuroprosthetic management of foot drop: pulse duration and frequency Review switched over Timer1... Older thenar muscle power refers to the greater muscle fatigue observed by Godfrey et al improves target capability. 400 mµs is better than 300 mµs and 3, the MVIC testing during the three produced...